Lithium plating

Lithium plating is a phenomenon that occurs in lithium-ion batteries when lithium ions are deposited as metallic lithium onto the anode (typically made of graphite) instead of being intercalated or inserted between the anode’s carbon layers.

This usually occurs under specific conditions like fast charging, charging at low temperatures, or when the cell is already at a high state of charge. Over time, this can create dendritic structures that may penetrate the separator, posing a risk of short-circuiting the battery. This not only reduces the battery’s life but also increases safety risks, as internal shorts can lead to thermal runaway and potential fires or explosions.

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