battery simulation models

Leverage cutting-edge battery modeling capabilities

Develop the ideal battery for any use case with our coupled electric-thermal-aging models. Benefit from groundbreaking features including open circuit voltage aging models, modeling of degradation modes and modeling of swelling force.

Battery expert testing battery cellsTWAICE picture depicting impedance

Our Offering

Choose from a range of model types, from models based on our internal database to models created based on measurements in the TWAICE Battery Research Center.


Chemistry specific model based on TWAICE’S database

  • Compare li-ion battery chemistries & formats
  • Immediately integrate into your system simulation environment
  • Get immediate access to your model

Customized Base

Base Model enriched with customers own cell-data (e.g. from cell data sheet)

  • Fast access to aging insights
  • Use existing measurement data to optimize costs
  • Model delivery within 2 weeks


Cell-specific model based on in-house measurements from TWAICE lab

  • Best-in-class simulation model for your specific cell
  • Custom design of measurements & flexible adaption to modeling approaches
  • Advanced simulation functionalities e.g., OCV aging and modeling of degradation modes
Battery experts working in a battery research center
Outperform your competitors with optimized system battery design

Automotive OEMs trust TWAICE

“Our collaboration with TWAICE went far beyond the usual with software and service providers. We could really accelerate our development and gain insights early on.”

High-Voltage Battery Research & Development Manager

German Automotive OEM
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Optimize your battery modeling capabilities  

Battery expert holding a battery pack for Simulation models testing

Select the right battery cell & technology

  • Different cells suit different applications
  • Datasheets from cell manufacturers do not provide a complete picture of battery behavior
  • Testing all available cells for specific use cases to obtain aging data is too cost-intensive
  • Access the performance and aging behavior of the battery cell for different use cases over its lifetime. Validate the information provided by cell suppliers.
  • Simulate hundreds of different use cases in no time to make sure the strengths and weaknesses of your chosen cell are well-understood.
  • Compare battery cells to choose the optimal supplier.

Get battery design spot on

  • When developing a new battery system, the space for the battery should be used as efficiently as possible.
  • The battery design must ensure safe operation over it’s entire lifetime.
  • Depending on the configuration, for the same load profiles, battery cells are loaded differently and therefore degrade differently.
  • Avoid the cost of oversizing, but do not compromise on performance or lifetime.
  • Identify the optimum number of cells and what the right configuration is needed to meet the power requirements of the application.
  • Simulate different use cases and designs to strike the balance between desired performance and optimal costs.

Fine-tune battery system design

  • Assessing the interaction of different components for the overall system.
  • It is time- and cost intensive to assess the impact of different use cases on battery performance in varying operating conditions.
  • Currently only generic battery models available which insufficiently model the behavior.
  • Enhance the model-based design of your application by integrating validated battery models with the system simulation. Evaluate how its requirements translate into battery requirements to find the best concept.
  • Run sensitivity analysis on different parameters such as SoC windows or DoD to find the optimal operating conditions for a long-lasting and reliable vehicle.
  • Use these insights to optimize Battery Management System functionalities, derive warranty terms, and assess business cases such as BaaS.

Battery Models

Access a host of high-fidelity electrical, thermal, and aging battery cell models of the latest lithium-ion battery cells on the market
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Get in touch with us

  • Talk to a member of the TWAICE team
  • Get a demo of TWAICE battery analytics
  • Find out how TWAICE delivers value to your business
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What is your modelling approach?
TWAICE battery models use a coupled electric-thermal-aging model to ensure that the battery cell’s behavior is considered in the most holistic way possible. It can be considered a combination of an ECM (equivalent-circuit-model) and a physics-informed SE (semi-empirical) model.

To create a new model based on measurements in the TWAICE battery research center, cell characterization for a complete aging model typically takes 3 to 6 months
How do you parameterize your models?
Base model: leverages the TWAICE battery database, which has been built up over years of doing battery cell measurements. The model helps to answer general questions about cell formats, chemistries, and capacities.

Customized base model: with further enhancement of base model parameters and one step more cell specific. The base model is adapted and optimized for a specific cell by using aging data of the cell, provided by the customer.

Premium model:  is created by doing measurements in the TWAICE battery research center. The model is cell-specific, reflecting the behavior of one specific cell. The premium model offers advanced simulation functionalities, such as OCV aging or degradation modes.  Not sure which model fits your needs? Our team is happy to help - just reach out to us!
Do you build only cell, or also module / system models?
Our standard product is cell level models. However, we do have options to consider some module level effects. Please reach out to us to find out more.