TWAICE battery lab

A new generation of aging models for lithium-ion batteries

The latest version of the TWAICE simulation model, Version 9, introduces the first steps towards a new generation of battery simulation models: The physics-motivated semi-empirical aging models.

Download the content
TWAICE / Aug 17, 2023
No items found.


TWAICE helped me to learn more about: A new generation of aging models for lithium-ion batteries read article here:


A new generation of aging models for lithium-ion batteries


The ongoing global energy transition, driven by the dual imperatives of environmental sustainability and economic efficiency, has catalyzed the rise of two essential fields: electric vehicles (EVs) and energy storage systems (ESS). At the heart of these innovative technologies lies an essential component — the battery system. Its performance, efficiency, and longevity significantly impact the overall functionality and viability of both EVs and ESS.

Over the last years, scientists have invested a lot of time and resources to optimize semi-empirical, physico-chemical, and data-driven simulation models. All of them show different challenges and limitations. To overcome this dead end, scientists and engineers combine physicochemical-mechanical degradation effects and integrate them into (semi)-empirical as well as data-driven approaches. We call this combination physics-motivated semi-empirical aging models.

The whitepaper covers the following topics:

  • The new TWAICE simulation model portfolio: base model, customized base model, premium model
  • The new generation of physics-motivated semi-empirical aging models: OCV aging, degradation modes, understanding the accuracy of models, simulation of swelling force
  • Vision and outlook

Download the whitepaper here:

Related Resources

Energy storage in front of mountains
March 25, 2024

LFP in energy storage

Lithium-ion batteries play an essential role in the transition to renewable energies and in generating electricity from more reliable and sustainable technologies. NMC has been the widely used technology for the past years, but now LFP is increasing in popularity due to reasons such as cost and safety advantages. However, LFP comes with challenges, particularly regarding accurate state estimations.
Electrified street in mountains
March 25, 2024

Batteries and their Global Warming Potential: a lifecycle view

Lithium-Ion-Batteries are a key technology for green energy, mobility, and for this reason a key technology to mitigate climate change. However, batteries have a significant environmental impact. This impact is created along various steps in the lifecycle, e.g. during the extraction of raw materials or production. This white paper will explore the various stages of a battery's life cycle and how they contribute to its overall Global Warming Potential (GWP).
Improving BESS performance, availability and safety
January 9, 2024

Improve the safety, availability and performance of your battery energy storage systems

Battery energy storage systems are essential for accelerating the shift towards green energy and an integral part of the electricity grid across the globe. Their safety, availability and performance is more important than ever.